At it is known, battles in the Dardanelles Front began first by exertion of force on the strait by British and French naval forces and then continued on the land.
Attacks to the Dardanelles from the Sea in World War I:
The first attackto the Dardanelles from the sea was made on 3 Nowember 1914 at 06.50 a.m and two British battleahipsbombed Ertugrul And Seddulbahir forts and two French battleships bombe Kumkale and Orhaniye forts for 17 minutes. During the bombardment first casualties were suffered. Five Turkish officers and 80 Turkish soldiers died in combat and 1 officer and 20 soldiers were wounded.
French and British battleships approached to the Strait next on 19 February 1915 at 7.45 a.m and held the Turkish forts at the orifice of the Strait under long-range artillery until 5.30 p.m
The British-French fleet re-approaching to the Strait augmented by newly arrived ships on 25 February 1915 shelled the Turkish forts at long-range. Although Orhaniye and Ertugrul Forts opened fire after the battleships entered into range, they were silenced by superior fire of the ships.
Upon silencing of outer forts some battleships entered into the Strait on the 26th and 27th of February and shelled the central forts but failing to succeed, the ships ithdrew.
British and French battleships entering into the Strait on 1, 2, 3, 4, and 12 March 1915 but had no considerable success.
British Admiral De Robeck decided to open the way for Istanbul by concentrating all of his naval force on the Strait.
The Naval Assault of March 19, 1915
A meeting was held in Bozca Ada on 17 March 1915 at 3.00 p.m hrs with the participation of General Hamilton to discuss the sea operation plan to be performed on the next day.
At night on the same day, mineship Nusrat of the Turkish Navy began to drop mines at prescribed locations at Karanlık Lıman and completed the operation successfully at 03.20 a.m hrs.
In the morning on 18 March 1915, the British and French fleets sailed into the Strait with full speed and confidence and started shelling the Turkish forts at the European and Asiatic shores at 8.30 a.m hrs.
The allied squadron consisting of British and French battleships, 35% of which were lost under concentrated fire opened by Turkish aryillary, positioned at both sides of the Dardanelles and with the effect mines dropped in Karanlık Lıman had to retreat at 5.30 p.m hrs. Only in the battle made on 18 March 1915, Bouvet, Ocean, Irresistible, two destroyers and seven minesweepers sank, seven armoured ships including Gulois and Inflexible were completely out of order and some of these ships had to be towed out of the battle area.
The Land Operations at the Dardanelles During World War I
After the defeat of 18th March 1915 The British and the French understood that the Strait would not be passed through only with naval forces. So, they started to plan an amphibious operation.
In the meantime the Turkish Commander-in-Chief established the 5th Army by reinforcing the forces existing at the Dardanelles Area with new troops.